Migrating to Pug 2

Pug 2 was released in August 2016. To make improvements in the new release possible, we had to make the decision of deprecating or removing some APIs and undocumented language features. We made an effort to make these changes as unintrusive as possible, and many of these changes were previously discouraged in console warnings.

This article details how you can convert your application to the latest version of Pug.

Project Rename

Due to a trademark issue, the project name has been changed from “Jade” to “Pug” in conjunction with the release of Pug 2. This also means that we have changed the official supported file extension from .jade to .pug. Although .jade is still supported, it is deprecated. All users are encouraged to transition to .pug immediately.

Removed Language Features

Most of these removals can be automatically detected by pug-lint, our official linter.

Legacy Mixin Call

//- old

mixin foo('whatever')
//- new


We removed the legacy syntax for calling a mixin to make it easier to differentiate between declarations and calls. (All uses of the old syntax caused warnings in Jade v1.)

Attribute Interpolation

//- old


//- new


//- (on Node.js/io.js ≥ 1.0.0)
//- (everywhere)
a(href='before' + link + 'after')

We removed support for interpolation in attributes since the implementation was unnecessarily complex, and the feature tended to discourage users from learning that they can just use any JavaScript value in place of attributes. Check our attribute documentation for more information on attribute syntax.

Prefixed each Syntax

//- old

- each a in b
  = a

- for a in b
  = a
//- new

each a in b
  = a

for a in b
  = a

each is not part of the JavaScript syntax, so the use of each “keyword” in a JavaScript line is confusing as well as hackish (in terms of implementation). The same applies to parentheses-less for keyword.

Simply remove - and your code should work again.

Removed API

These exported properties and compilation options have been removed. In your application, make sure you are not using these APIs.



Previously, the undocumented jade.doctype object contained a hash of doctype shortcuts. By extending this object, users could create additional or modify existing doctype shortcuts.

In Pug v2, this object has been split from Pug into the doctypes package. To extend doctype shortcuts, you could write a codeGen plugin.


Previously, the undocumented jade.nodes object held a hash of classes that serve as the constructor of the nodes of the (also undocumented) Jade abstract syntax tree. In Pug v2, we have abandoned this approach in favor of duck typing using the type property in AST nodes.


Previously, the undocumented jade.selfClosing array could used to extend or modify the behavior of self-closing tags.

In Pug v2, this array has been split from Pug into the void-elements package. To modify this array, you could write a codeGen plugin.


Previously, the undocumented jade.utils object contained three functions that are useful for template engine internals.

utils.merge has been removed from Pug, as it is not used anymore. Its functionality can be roughly replicated using the ES2015 Object.assign method, among other variants.

utils.stringify has been split from Pug into the js-stringify package, with additional protection against possible XSS attacks. All users are advised to use that package.

utils.walkAST has been split into the pug-walk package.

Compiler, Lexer, Parser

Previously, the undocumented Jade compiler, lexer, and parser classes were exported through these properties. Users were allowed to create their own compilers, lexers, and parsers that derive from these classes, in order to customize compilation behaviors.

Pug v2 allows customization of the compilation process through plugins, and these exported properties are now removed.

The Pug v2 equivalent of classes are now part of the pug-code-gen, pug-lexer, and pug-parser packages, with various incompatible changes.


compiler, lexer, parser

These options were used in conjunction with the removed Compiler, Lexer, and Parser classes.


The client option was used for client function compilation. It was deprecated in favor of the compileClient function in 2013 year, and its use has been warned against since then.